Witham schools c.1700-1815

Witham schools c.1700-1815

Includes information from David Tomlinson and Janet Gyford, February 2001

Note that JG has only searched the Ipswich Journal up to 1764 and the Chelmsford Chronicle 1764-September 1784, and 1814.

Reference numbers are ERO (Essex Record Office) unless otherwise stated.

E.R.O. D/DBw M82, is an abstract of the court rolls and books of the manors of Witham and Newland. The number and description could help to identify more details.


(1) Private schools c.1700-1815 

Name; first name first First year that school was known Info from David Tomlinson, obtained from adverts in Ipswich Journal and Chelmsford Chronicle Further info from Janet Gyford

 

Witham School ? n.d. – Photograph of drawing of ‘Witham School’ (T/P 339/1/16). I have had difficulty placing this. From its appearance it seems most like the building that used to be known as the Wilderness (52-54 Newland Street), demolished in the 1960s. I suppose it could possibly have been James Dunn’s before he moved to Witham Place.
William Allen 1759 There were two or more William Allens: I have put a selection of references to all of them. It looks as if the teaching might have come after the bankruptcy ? See also Thomas Allen.

1716-1776 In various years a WA witnessed apprenticeship indentures, especially from the 1750s to 1770s (D/P 30/14/1).

1717-19: property occupied by a WA (no. 51) (now site of 53-55 Newland Street) (D/DBw M82, M72).

1732: Churchwarden (D/P 30/14/1).

1738: Will of William Allen elder; sons Thomas and William (D/ACR 15/53).

1738-40: William Allen (junior?) occupied and bought property (no. 51 as above) (D/DBw M82).

1742: 11 windows in Window Tax (D/Z 3).

1743: bought properties at Chipping Hill. (properties 131, 132, 139, 146) (20-22 and 26-30 Chipping Hill, 1-5 Church Street, sites of 54-56 Church Street) (D/DBw M82).

1747: Churchwarden (D/P 30/14/1).

1748: Elizabeth Taverner, widow of Dr James Taverner (founder of Witham Spa) left WA woollen draper a suit of mourning (D/ACR 15/286).

1753: William Allen, shopkeeper and chapman, was bankrupt (Ipswich Journal 7 April 1753, D/DDw T63).

1753: Assignees sold WA’s properties as above (properties 51, 131, 132, 139, 146) (D/DBw M82).

1759: ‘Wanted immediately (as an usher) at Witham School in Essex, a sober, regular person, that can write the hands well, and understands accounts. Such a person will meet with suitable encouragement from Mr William Allen of Witham aforesaid’ (Ipswich Journal, 20 October 1759, p.4).

1762 – 1776 (approx): A WA occupied property (property no.102; now site of 20 Newland Street) (D/DBw M82).

1763: Ref to Mr Allen, of Witham, organist and dancing master, in Colchester as mentioned by DT, and also at ‘Mr Ward’s’ at Chipping Hill in Witham (Ipswich Journal 4 and 18 June) (could be Thomas or William Allen, q.v.; Arthur Brown Witham in the Eighteenth Century, page 15, said it was William but I haven’t found proof which one yet).

1782: WA younger a tailor (D/DBw M44).

1783: William Allen senior, gentleman, died. Another WA was his nephew. Newspaper refers to his scholarship but not to any teaching (D/DQo 32; Chelmsford Chronicle, 31 October 1783, 2 April 1784).

Mrs ? Ward 1760s 1760s (early): Had a school on Chipping Hill.

(there were other Wards in Witham but mostly a bit early or late for this)

Mrs Burnett 1761 1761 (Jan) – 1767 (Feb): Boarding school for young ladies.

Wife of the Independent minister in Witham. School closed as her husband was moving to another pastorate.

1768 (May): Revd John Caldow took Mrs Burnett’s house

1752-67: Revd. John Burnett pastor of Congregational church (D/NC 3/1).
Anne Aylmer and Robert Aylmer, 1762 1762 (Jan) – ?: boarding school for young ladies. Husband, Robert; peripatetic dancing master.

1779: they lived in Colchester.

1780 (July): Anne died.

All this relates to Robert. Information marked with an asterisk is from various letters from John Butt.

c.1747-1760: subscriber to local composers i.e. Joseph Gibbs Opus I (c.1747), Opus II (1777), Joseph Eyre (c.1760), John Carr of Boxford ‘The Grove’ (1760).*

1754: Brabazon Aylmer of Ulting left estate to wife and then to son of Rev Robert A vicar of Camberwell (Morant).*

1755: RA of St Peters Colchester and another bound RA widower (37) married Ann Smith (36) of Earls Colne in marriage bond.*

1757: A Mr Aylmer has taken over Colchester School of Mr Wood of Ipswich (Mondays) (Ipswich Journal 2 and 9 April).*

1761: Advert for opening Mr and Mrs Aylmer’s school (earlier than the one mentioned by DT) (Ipswich Journal 26 December 1761, page 3).

1765 approx: Robert occupied property (no. 12) (probably High House, 5 Newland Street, new house then (now Chinese restaurant) (D/DBw M82).

c.1764 – c.1772 Various references to ‘Mr Aylmer’s ball’. At Witham for his young ladies and at Dedham for his young gentlemen and ladies’ (e.g. Chelmsford Chronicle 13 September 1765). In or before 1772 it began to be just at Dedham though Witham was given as his address (e.g. Chelmsford Chronicle 4 September 1772). Later he had one at Colchester too (e.g. Chelmsford Chronicle 29 August 1777).

1797: Robert previously occupied land (no. 155, a close in Mill Lane) (D/DBw M39).

Robert Aylmer 1762 See Anne Aylmer. See Anne Aylmer.
Thomas Allen 1763 or 1775? 1763 (June) a Mr Allen opened a dancing school in Colchester – described as organist of Witham – is this the same as Thomas ? For three years, had been assistant to Revd John Caldow. Before that, occasionally assisted Revd Charles Case.

Taught drawing at Mr Aylmer’s school for five years.

1775 (Dec): took over Red Lion and opened school.

1784 (June): school taken over by Revd Alex Murray.

More than one Thomas. See also William Allen.

1738-40: TA elder was brother of William and son of William the elder and Rachel (D/ACR 15/53).

1740: Husband of Elizabeth who was left property (no. 35; now 66 Newland Street) (D/DBw M82).

1740: Occupied Corner House and waste adjoining (properties 171, 172, 178; now site of 64 Newland Street) (D/DBw M82).

1742: Had 18 windows in Window Tax (D/Z 3).

1743: witnessed will of John Bourne (D/ACR 15/189).

1746, 1748, 1750: witnessed apprenticeship indentures (D/P 20/14/1).

1751: a TA witnessed the will of Thomas Sandford (with signature) (D/ACW 30/28).

1763: Ref to Mr Allen, of Witham, organist and dancing master, in Colchester as mentioned by DT, and also at ‘Mr Ward’s’ at Chipping Hill in Witham (Ipswich Journal 4 and 18 June) (could be Thomas or William Allen, q.v.; Arthur Brown Witham in the Eighteenth Century, page 15, said it was William but I haven’t found proof which one yet).

1775 (April) TA to open school (earlier than DT’s ref). Same info as Dec but doesn’t mention Red Lion (Chelmsford Chronicle 14 April 1775).

1776: Advertised for an assistant in his school (Chelmsford Chronicle 6 September 1776).

1777: Had moved from his house opposite the George inn to more commoddious one lately occupied by Mrs Walman (Chelmsford Chronicle 24 October 1777). The old one was probably the previous Red Lion (site of 68 Newland Street). The new one was probably part of Medina House (site of 80-84 Newland Street).

1778: Advert that TA had engaged a gentleman from London to ‘teach Latin and French grammatically’ (Chelmsford Chronicle 18 December 1778).

1779: TA advertised for a person to teach Latin and arithmetic at his school ‘in the Country’ (Chelmsford Chronicle 16 April 1779).

1783: Ref to TA elder as late brother, deceased, of William Allen of Witham, and TA younger as son of TA elder; latter was left books by WA (D/DQo 32).

1786: Previously occupied a piece of garden (D/DO T739).

1787: Previously occupied a property that was previously called Hart Yard; was occupied by Alexander Murray after him (probably part of Medina House as above) (D/DO T739).

1793 approx: bookseller (Universal British Directory).

1794: occupied premises (probably next to 117 Newland Street) (deeds of property owned by Co-op: I saw these privately but they may be in Colchester RO now).

1814: will of TA ‘clerk to the justices of Witham Division, late Witham, now Boreham’ (D/AER 36/110).

Mr Ward 1763 1763: Ref to Mr Allen, of Witham, organist and dancing master, in Colchester as mentioned by DT, and also at ‘Mr Ward’s’ at Chipping Hill in Witham (Ipswich Journal 4 and 18 June)* (could be Thomas or William Allen, q.v.; Arthur Brown Witham in the Eighteenth Century, page 15, said it was William but I haven’t found proof which one yet)

(there were other Wards in Witham but mostly a bit early or late for this)

Revd John Caldow 1768 1768 (Jan) – 1778 (Dec): boarding school for young gentleman.

1768 (May): took Mrs Burnett’s house. Employed assistants.

1778: took a partner.

Quite a big school (1768: not more than 20 boarders, quite a large number in those days).

1779 (June) – 1790: Mr H Thompson took over Revd John Caldow’s school.

1782: taught Latin and Greek in Mr Till’s school at Rainham (Till was described as from Witham – was he Caldow’s partner ?).

1767: School to be opened at Witham; details. Rev. John Caldow had previously been usher to the Grammar School at Lavenham for 8½ years. His ad. said ‘Witham is a pleasant and healthy town, where are convenient houses for young gentlemen to board in’ (Chelmsford Chronicle 12 June 1767; i.e. before DT’s reference).

c.1768: John Crosier attended ‘Caldow’s Academy at Witham’ for a year, after 5 years at Felsted (Arthur Brown Essex People, p.2).

1782: School to be opened at Rainham by John Till from Witham. For his character consult Rev Caldow. Latin and Greek will be taught by Revd. Caldow if required (Chelmsford Chronicle 11January 1782).

Robert Dallinger 1768 1766: RD witnessed will of Abraham Lake (D/ACR 17/32).

1768: RD advertised his services as a land surveyor and mathematician. Also ‘teaches astronomy, navigation, dialling, mensuration, gauging, and all other parts of the mathematics’ (Chelmsford Chronicle, 8, 15, 22 April, 6 May, 10 June 1768).

1769: RD wrote an article about the comet for the Chronicle (Chelmsford Chronicle 8 September 1769).

1770: new advert, on death of Timothy Skinner, surveyor (also of Witham). In addition to surveying, RD teaches ‘navigation, mensuration, gauging and all other parts of the mathematics according to the latest improvements’ )Chelmsford Chronicle 20 July 1770).

1771: new advert again (Chelmsford Chronicle 15 November 1771).

1772: RD witnessed will of Robert Goslin (D/ACR 17/338)

1774: RD prepared map of Jacob Pattisson’s land in Witham (T/M 52).

For more about Dallinger see A.S.Mason, Essex on the Map.

Revd Charles Case 1771 1771 (March): to open school; dissenting minister at Witham.

1771-1773?: school ran

1767-82: Pastor of Congregational church. Died 1782 (D/NC 3/1; Chelmsford Chronicle 14 June 1782)

1772: school advertised as ‘Protestant dissenting boarding school’ (Chelmsford Chronicle 19 June, 3 July 1772).

1772: Book by CC advertised: ‘Objections against human authority in religion’. CC a signatory to a notice calling a meeting of Protestant Dissenting ministers about ‘relief in the matter of subscription’ (Chelmsford Chronicle 4 December 1772).

?date: Sermon by CC in ERO library.

Mrs Jane Aldridge 1775 1775 (Feb) – 1779 (July): from Harwich. 1779 Sale of Mrs A’s furniture (doesn’t say she had died) (Chelmsford Chronicle 5 November 1779).
John Sly 1776 Writing master and accountant.

1776, March: opened school – did it last long? For the school he had built a ‘spacious room’ and several commodious and genteel lodging rooms for boarders.

Had taught for 23 years.

1766: A Mr Sly occupied premises (not sure where) (D/DE T75).

1770: JS occupied property 91 (now site of 32 Newland Street) (D/DBw M82).

1771: John Sly of Stoke by Nayland took over Witham business of Samuel Rogers, bookseller, bookbinder and stationer’. J.S. had been ‘elected master of the Free School at Witham’, and assured care of children (Chelmsford Chronicle 11 October 1771).

1774: JS voted Whig. Had freehold in Felsted, was resident in Witham (Poll book).

1775: Advert about lodging rooms for boarders (earlier than DT’s ref and not mentioning the spacious room) (Chelmsford Chronicle 21 April 1775).

Miss Love 1779 1779 (April) – 1780? 1780: A Hannah Maria Love had purchased property in Maldon Road (later site of Trafalgar Square, now site of roundabout to Tesco). Daughter of Stephen and Mary Love (Stephen probably of Watford so maybe Hannah didn’t live in Witham either) (D/DBw M39 re property 39; D/DC 32/756).

1780: Miss L. had engaged an assistant. Children at the school are taught embroidery ‘after the manner of the late celebrated Mrs Wright’ (Chelmsford Chronicle 7 January 1780).

1781: Advert for Miss Love’s school (later than DT’s) (Chelmsford Chronicle 29 December 1780).

1784: Miss L had occupied part of building before Miss Dyer (probably part of Medina House, site of 80-84 Newland Street, next to the part occupied by Alexander Murray) (D/DO T739, T756, D/ACR 19/62).

1785: Previously occupied tenement on north side of Newland Street (Sale catalogue B462).

1825: An Ann Love had died and her property went to H.M.Love (D/DBw M40).

Mr H Thompson 1779 1779 (June) – 1790: took over Revd John Caldow’s school.

1790 (March): his house to let.

1790 (April): James Dunn took over Mr H Thompson’s house.

1785: A — Thompson previously occupied Pound cottage (probably top of what is now Avenue Road, where the pound was) (Sale catalogue B462).

1788-1803: Reverend Henry Thompson occupied part of property 44 (probably now Roslyn House, 16 Newland Street) (D/DBw M49-50).

Miss Aylmer 1780 1780 (after Christmas): opened the school after Anne A. (her mother?) died.
Misses Elliott 1781 1781 (July) – 1783?: boarding school for young ladies.

1783 (March): Miss Dyer and Miss Fulcher took the Misses Elliotts’ house.

1781: First advert says she was ‘of Ipswich’ ((Chelmsford Chronicle 6 July 1781).
Mr John Till 1782 1782: Rev John Caldow of Witham taught Latin at Mr Till’s school at Rainham (was Till Caldow’s partner ?) 1782: School to be opened at Rainham by John Till from Witham. For his character consult Rev Caldow. Latin and Greek will be taught by Revd. Caldow if required (Chelmsford Chronicle 11January 1782).
Miss Dyer and Miss Fulcher 1783 1783 (March): took the Misses Elliotts’ house.

1791 (autumn): school continued till then.

1784: Miss D occupied part of building, following Miss Love (probably part of Medina House, site of 80-84 Newland Street, next to the part occupied by Alexander Murray) (D/DO T739, T756, D/ACR 19/62).

1785: Miss D occupied tenement on north side of Newland Street near centre of town (not sure of present location) (Sale catalogue B462).

The following are maybe too late to be the same one?.

1826-27: Miss D one of ‘gentry and clergy’ (Pigot’s directory).

1839: Miss D one of ‘gentry and clergy’ (Pigot’s directory).

1839: A Sarah Dyer occupied part of house and garden (now part of site of Mill Lane car park, corner of Newland Street) (D/CT 405A and 405B, tithe award and map)).

1840: Miss D resident in Mill Lane; three in house of which two went to Anglican church, and one to Independent meeting (D/P 30/28/5).

1859: A Mary Dyer had previously occupied adjoining property which had later been occupied by Miss Houghton (theirs probably being 119 Newland Street) (deeds of property owned by Co-op: I saw these privately but they may be in Colchester RO now).

See also Mrs Dyer.

Miss Fulcher 1783 See Miss Dyer
Mr Matthews 1783? 1783: dancing master at Rev Henry Thompson’s school (Chelmsford Chronicle 10 January 1783).
Revd Alex Murray 1784 1784 (June): Took over Thomas Allen’s school.

1784 (June) – 1785? taught in Witham. Had been British chaplain in Gibraltar

1785: Garden in possession of Alexander Moreland, schoolmaster, for sale (Sale catalogue B462, part of Lot VI, probably what was formerly Lion fields, now site of Guithavon Street etc.).

1786: Alexander Moreland, also known as Murray, schoolmaster, occupied piece of garden and part of a tenement in Newland Street on the north side, occupied by Thomas Allen before him, next to the part occupied by Miss Dyer (probably part of Medina House, site of 80-84 Newland Street) (D/DO T739, T756).

Alexander Moreland 1785 See Alexander Murray.
Thomas Fort 1785 Thomas, an infant of Thomas Fort, ‘scoolmaster’, buried
James Dunn 1790 1790 (April): took over Mr H Thompson’s house. Boarding school for young gentlemen.

1790: advert called his school ‘Witham School’.

1794: moved premises.

1803: school known as ‘Witham Place Academy’ (is this Witham or Chelmsford?)

1816 (Feb): school still functioning.

1791: Witnessed will of John Firman (D/DCm F7).

c.1793: JD schoolmaster (Universal British Directory).

1803: JD one of trustees of Greene’s charity (Charity Commissioners’ report).

1803-1804: JD, schoolmaster, one of trustees of Bridge Street almshouses (D/P 30/25/80-84 and Charity Commissioners’ report).

1803:1815: JD one of trustees of Barnardiston charity (D/P 30/25/52 and Charity Commissioners’ report).

1806: A xerox of a copy book of John Harridge of Witham Place (not sure it mentions the school or James Dunn but a connection seems likely (T/B 300). John was born 26 June 1800 son of Thomas, wine merchant of Witham.

1818: ‘Lord Stourton had formerly a seat at Chipping Hill, called Witham Place; it is now occupied as a classical school by the Rev. James Dunn’ (Excursions) (Witham Place had been a large Elizabethan mansion but only part of it remained by this time (see below in 1862); it was demolished later in the 19th century. The long front wall remains (in Powershall End) and also a barn or small house which is part of Spring Lodge community centre).

1825: Revd J.S.Dunn purchased lot 5 in Maldon Road in sale (Sale catalogue B691).

1855: JD previously occupied part of property 44 (probably now Roslyn House, 16 Newland Street) (D/DBw M41).

1862: One room remained of Witham Place with stepped gable (now the barn, a room in Spring Lodge community centre). The author’s father went to school there (T/P 196/4, account by H.W.King).

Miss Woollaston 1807 1807 (July): opened boarding school for young ladies.

1815 (Jan): still functioning.

1814: Miss Woollaston occupied ‘Batfords’ (now 100 Newland Street) as a Ladies’ Boarding School (Sale Catalogue B844).
Revd W.G.Plees 1813 1813 (Oct): opened an expensive classical and commercial seminary (under 12s 40 guineas, over 12s 50 guineas).

1814 (July): still functioning.

Miss Jane Bright 1814 1814: Had a ‘preparatory school for little boys’ at Howbridge Hall (Chelmsford Chronicle, 20 May, 10 June, 24 June).

1830-62: Various references to a Miss Jane Bright owning and occupying a house in Newland Street, though no ref to school there (site of 101 Newland Street). In her will of 1860 she left to William Bright of Coggeshall, brewer, to sell (D/DBw M82, M40, M41; D/CT 405A and B (tithe award and map)).

1862: Auction of her house after her death (D/DU 56/4).

Mrs Dyer 1814 1814 Mrs D resigned and Miss Larcher taken over ladies’ seminary (Chelmsford Chronicle, 1 July)).

See also Miss Dyer.

Miss Larcher 1814 See Mrs Dyer.

 

 

(2) Private schools c.1815 to c.1830 so might have been there a bit earlier

Name; sur-name first Name; first name first First year school known Information     from Janet Gyford

 

Grant, Miss Miss Grant 1823-24 1823-4 and 1826-7: Miss Grant (ladies boarding) (Pigot’s directory, under ‘Academies’).
Harridge, Miss Miss Harridge 1826-27 1826-27: Miss Harridge (ladies day) (Pigot’s directory, under ‘Academies’).
Nutt, — — Nutt Pre 1833 1833: ‘Schoolmaster Nutt’ previously occupied property now near 36 Newland Street, partly taken up by Collingwood Road.
Steele, Miss Isabella Miss Isabella Steele 1823-24 1823-24: Miss Steele ladies boarding school under (Pigot’s directory, under ‘Academies’)

1826-27: Miss Steele ladies boarding school under (Pigot’s directory, under ‘Academies’)

1839: Isabella Steele had boarding school under (Pigot’s directory).

1839: Isabella Steele occupied house now High House, part of 5 Newland Street (D/CT 405A and 405B, tithe award and map)).

1840: Miss S resident south side of Newland Street. Twenty in the house, all to the Anglican church. Thinks a new (Anglican) chapel would be convenient for herself, but if her school want seats, they must be free).

1841: Arabella [sic] Steele, schoolmistress (aged 50), had c.15 girls aged 4to 16 living at the school (probably now High House, 5 Newland Street) (census returns, HO 107/343/17, ff.18-19, pp.31-32).

 

(3) Charity and public schools

(a) Extracts from ‘Public Spirit: dissent in Witham and Essex 1500-1700, of possible relevance to 18th century schools

 Chapter 2: ‘Useful information’: Teachers

None of the Witham establishments developed into formal ‘grammar schools’, as happened in some other towns. The licensing system was suspended during the Civil War, but re-introduced in 1660. In 1664, in addition to the licensed teacher Witham had, according to the churchwardens ‘some private schooles taught by women soe farr as horne booke and plaster and learning Children to knit and Sowe’. Horn books were boards displaying the alphabet and numbers. Perhaps ‘dame’ schools like these had always existed without need of official consent, though they may have benefited from the reduced regulation since 1642.[1]

Chapter 11: 1660 onwards

Jonas Warley, 1680-1722 [vicar]

Warley’s will of 1722 shows him to have been quite a wealthy landowner, and his bequests to his wife Deborah, who survived him by twelve years, included: a silver cup with a cover, a little silver cup, a silver porringer, a pair of silver sconces, a silver hand candlestick, her gold watch, a diamond ring, a pair of diamond earings, a peice of old gold … [and] … the use of … a silver ladel, a little silver tankard, two silver salts, six new silver spoons cyphered D.W. … the Silver Tea pott and two small silver salvers.

Several charitable bequests benefited Clare Hall in Cambridge, his birthplace of Elham in Kent, and some national organisations. His gifts to Witham did not fare well after his death. Funds left for bread for poor women were used to rebuild the steeple, whilst one of his successors borrowed the money which he gave for teaching the poor, and disappeared to Ireland with it during the 1780s. He asked that his papers should be burnt after his death, except for a special collection of sermons that had been given on public occasions, whose whereabouts is not now known. So the most enduring survival of his life in Witham is the epitaph on his tomb in the north aisle of the church’

“He was very diligent and constant in the discharge of his Archidiaconal and pastoral office; a great promoter of good works; witness this church, and the recovering 18£ per annum for 4 Almspeople, which had been lost near 80 years. He was ready to oblige every one in his Power, and willingly offended none; was always steady to the Principles and Interest of the Church, yet of so courteous a temper, as all parties respected him. He did, not only in his life do a great many good works, but left considerable Sums to several Charitys of divers kinds when he died, and lamented by most who knew him.[2]

Other clergy and teachers [1660 onwards]

The teacher Thomas Ponder, probably a Cambridge graduate, and quite elderly, provided a steady presence in the parish during the constant changes before Warley’s arrival. His wife Priscilla was one of the Garrard family, whose wealth was starting to decline; she was the sister of nonconformist Robert Garrard(2). Ponder was authorised by the bishop in 1662 ‘to teach children and others in the Rudimentes of Grammar and such other English books as are lawfully allowed to be taught in the Realme of England’. In 1664 his was reported to be the town’s only licensed school, though there were other ‘private schooles taught by women’. He was also curate of the adjoining parish of Cressing. Nine Witham wills were witnessed and probably written by him between 1669 and 1678, many more than were witnessed by the vicars. He lived in a two-hearth house, but was recorded as a pauper in 1662 and again at his death in 1679, when no valuation was made of his goods, even though the parish register called him a ‘gentleman’. Two bequests made to him by his Witham relatives may in the circumstances have been acts of charity. His brother-in-law Robert Garrard(2) left him a ‘coat that is in John Skinner’s hands to be altered’, and his nephew John Ponder left him £10, some clothes, and two books by Laudian authors. His widow Priscilla seems to have fared rather better, perhaps with funds from her relatives, as she bought a house in Newland Street in 1687 (where no.20, ‘Tiptree Villa’, now stands). Her goods were worth £25 when she died in 1696. She left the house to her youngest daughter Elizabeth, together with a Bible. Elizabeth, then aged 30, was ‘not in her Right Sences’, so her brother was to supervise her property.[3]

Vicar Francis Wright had no curate, but his successor John Harper appointed one, William Howe, in 1669. John Ponder, Thomas’s nephew, wanted Howe to preach his funeral sermon in 1678, and left him forty shillings for doing so. Howe also witnessed the will, but did not witness any others in Witham. One other teacher was layman Robert Burchard(5), like Ponder connected with a family of gentlemen and yeomen who had been established in the parish since the late sixteenth century. The Burchards had lived in the same Newland Street house throughout (now the site of nos.103/109, part of the Co-op in 1998). Robert(5) is first recorded as teaching in 1706, but he was already aged about 56 by then, and may have begun earlier. By the 1720s, his establishment seems to have been the only one in the parish that was regarded as a ‘school’. Amongst his pupils were five ‘Charity Children’ paid for by the bequest from vicar Jonas Warley.[4]

 (b) Other schools founded by parish and churches
(i) ‘Sunday and day school’
Admission registers 1787-1813 survive in the parish records for a Sunday school and for a ‘Monday and Friday school’ (which became called the Day school) (D/P 30/1/2A)). They give details of parents and their occupation, and of where the children went when they left. There was an essay submitted for the Emmison prize in 1965 about the Sunday School (T/Z 13/106).

(ii) National School
Established 1813 at top of Avenue Road (now the site of 64 Avenue Road). The whole site was only 38 feet across and 26 feet deep. Intended for 80 boys and 80 girls. By 1841 it had 98 boys and 126 girls, and new schools were built to replace it in Guithavon Street (Accession 5605 (part)).

(iii) British School
Built 1837 in Guithavon Street (D/NC 3 various). Probably preceded by teaching at the Independent church – see also Charles Case above. 

(iv) Workhouse
The parish workhouse in Church Street, built 1714, may have had some teaching also. The Union workhouse, built c.1838, had a school (e.g. see census returns).


References
[1] Guildhall MS 9539B/14, 9537/24/140v, 9583/2, part 3, f.125v; O.E.D. In c.1760, boys’ and girls’ boarding schools began to advertise in Witham. Church schooling began here in 1787, with new Sunday and Day Schools (Ipswich Journal, 20 Oct.1759, 10 Jan.1761; E.R.O. D/P 30/1/2A).

[2] P.R.O. PROB 11/586/167 (at first Warley left his ‘Library of Printed Books unless Duplicates’ to the master and fellows of Clare Hall in Cambridge, but this was amended by a codicil so that instead they were to have £50 when they began to build a new chapel and another £50 towards the building of a ‘New Theater’); Elham [Kent] Parish Magazine, December 1984 (Anne Brambleby kindly pointed this out); E.R.O. D/ACW 28 (Deborah Warley); manor no.156; Charity Commissioners Report, p.914; Fowler, 1911, p.22; E.R.O. D/P 30/25/92. Lilly Butler, vicar 1762-82, who took the school money, became chaplain to the Duke of Buckingham in Ireland, and Dean of Ardagh; he died in Boulogne in 1792 (Alumni Cantabrigiensis,).

[3][3] Alumni Cantabrigiensis; E.R.O. D/P 30/25/90, 91; E.R.O. D/DA T549; E.R.O. D/P 30/1/1; Gyford, 1996, pp.187, 191-92; Guildhall MSS 9539B, f.14, 9537/16, ff.17, 18v, 9537/18, f.27v; 9537/19, f.23, 9583/2, part 3, f.125v. Thomas Ponder was probably ordained in 1637. In 1654 he and his wife had lived at Stoke by Nayland in Suffolk. Venn gives him as curate of Witham as well as of Cressing in 1664, but this probably arises from a misinterpretation of the entry as schoolmaster at Witham in the same year. The churchwardens’ presentment of that year says that there was no curate in Witham. In 1669 Ponder may have been about to leave Cressing, as the vicar was ordered to get a new curate (Guildhall MS 9537/16, f.18v, 9583/2, part 3, ff 124-25v). Wills witnessed by Ponder: E.R.O. D/ACW 18/112, 18/140, 18/226, 18/318, 18/357, 19/18, 19/80, 19/112. He also witnessed other documents such as apprenticeship indentures (E.R.O. D/P 30/14/1; E.R.O. D/P 30/18/3). House, poverty, bequests etc.: E.R.O. Q/RTh 1/29, 5/18, 8/9, 9/7; Guildhall MS 9538B, f.14; E.R.O. D/ACAc 2, f.74; E.R.O. D/P 30/1/1; E.R.O. D/ACW 19/46, 19/80, 22/102; D.N.B; manor no.102 (see also 170, 173); E.R.O. D/P 30/1/2. The two books were ‘Geography’ by Peter Haylin, and a set of sermons by Lancelot Andrewes.

[4] Howe: Alumni Cantabrigiensis; E.R.O. D/ACW 19/18. Burchard: Guildhall MS 9537/24, f.140v; E.R.O. D/ACW 14/194, 20/100 (probably wills of Robert Burchard(5)’s grandfather and father respectively); manor no.1; P.R.O. PROB 11/586/167; E.R.O. D/P 30/25/93; E.R.O. D/P 30/1/2 (11 June 1738, burial of ‘Mr.Robert Burchard, formerly schoolmaster’, aged 88); E.R.O. T/A 778/2 (microfilm of Guildhall MS 25750/1). In 1722 it was said that the children were ‘only taught to read and write’ at Burchard’s school, but it was ‘duly manag’d and attended’.


 

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