Once upon a time, I thought that a Witham website could contain everything that I wanted it to. But of course I was wrong. I am still surrounded by loads of files and papers, which could be really interesting on the website. But I shall never have the time to put them there. So let me explain that I am leaving all my papers about the history of Witham to the Essex Record Office, with their consent. So you should eventually be able to see them there when I’m gone, if you make the right arrangements. As well as the files I mentioned, there are boxes of photos. And especially there’s a large card index, mostly to people but also to places. There is quite a lot of information about the 17th century, which so far is not represented very much on this website. I don’t add to the card index now, but I still find it really invaluable for tracking people down.  So I hope you will too.

The UK Web Archive
This Archive aims to preserve websites into the future. It is based in the British Library. I’ve received the following communication from them:
“From  web-archivist@bl.uk   To  janet@gyford.com
Subject  UKWA License Received 1 May 2022    Your completed licence form has been submitted successfully, thank you.  The British Library is very pleased to have received your submission for the UK Web Archive which we will process as soon as possible. Please note that although we make every effort to archive websites as completely as possible there is much that cannot be archived for technical reasons. Further details can be found in the Technical information section http://www.webarchive.org.uk/ukwa/info/technical. Your website may not be available to view in the public archive for some time as we archive many thousands of websites and perform quality assurance checks on each instance. Due to the high number of submissions we receive, regrettably we cannot inform you when individual websites will be available to view in the archive at http://www.webarchive.org.uk/ but please do check the archive regularly as new sites are added every day. In the meantime many thanks for participating in the UK Web Archive and please do nominate other websites that you think may be in scope for us, http://www.webarchive.org.uk/ukwa/info/nominate. Kind regards, Nicola Bingham”

Searching the website
You can find a word (or short phrase) that occurs anywhere in the website, including in the descriptions of photos. First type the word into the Search box at the top right of this or any page. Then click the magnifying glass. That will produce all the relevant items, one after the other. For instance type in Trafalgar Square, click, and everything that mentions Trafalgar Square will appear. As usual, any photos will appear first. For long items you’ll have to click “continue reading” when asked, and look  for Trafalgar Square. Or if you prefer, search for it (with Control F, or Cmd+F for Macs).

Errors, blunders, mistakes etc.
Do let me know when you think you’ve found something wrong. Not just with the information, but if you press a key to go somewhere, and it goes to somewhere else instead.



You can also find things in a different way, by using the Categories. This does not show you individual words like the previous method does. It will just show you which of nine categories or subjects I have chosen to put an item into. This is useful if you’re not quite sure what you’re looking for, or what its name is. The names of the categories are across the tops of each page. Clicking one of them, will produce a list in blue of all the items in that category. Then clicking one of the items in the list will produce the item itself.  So if you start by clicking on the Places category, then click The Cage in the list, you get an account of the history of the Cage. You might not have known there was a cage if you hadn’t seen it on the list.

This all gives me an opportunity to discuss the categories, which I’ve numbered 1 to 9. 

(1) HOME and ABOUT
This is the part you are reading now. https://www.janetgyford.com/ will take you to the beginning.

My books are listed with details at https://www.janetgyford.com/books/
Most are out of print, but some of those can be read online. For instance, the latest, A History of Witham, can be downloaded in full at

Also see https://historyhouse.co.uk/placeW/essexw30.html, part of the History House series, which has census records, photos, maps etc. and is very useful.

There is a list at  https://www.janetgyford.com/articles/
The articles are numbered in the order in which they were published, and have the number at the beginning of the heading. Clicking any article on the list will bring up its text.

I started writing these articles for the newspaper in 2010. and stopped in 2018 because of shortage of time. At the beginning I was restricted to about 400 words in each article, with a photo. Later I had more space. The subject matter was mine to choose. Sometimes I tried to make it topical. I was always amazed at how many more subjects there still were to write about.

I seem to have concentrated on the last few hundred years, because that is where I feel most at home. In particular, I have often written about the 20th century. This has enabled me to quote from the memories of some wonderful Witham people.

is a list of the photos. They are numbered more or less in the order in which I acquired them, with an M at the beginning (e.g. M1234). This number is very important when there are so many photos, because it is the only unique feature of a photo. There may be duplicates of the image or the title, but only one number M1234.

Clicking on a photo’s entry on the list, will take you to it, at full size, with further details below it. From here you can get back to the list again by clicking Gallery | List in blue above the photo. From other routes you get a smaller and less focussed version of a photo, for instance from a search. Clicking once or twice on this smaller picture will produce a full screen-sized one.

Since the website was started, I have devoted most of my time to putting more photos into it. Firstly, because people like them, and secondly, because some of them are unique, in that we don’t know whether there are any copies of them anywhere else. So it seemed a good plan to preserve a copy in the website.

I have started with ‘old photos’, taken by many different people, nearly all since about 1900. There are about 3,000 of them. Dozens and dozens of kind people have generously allowed me to make copies of their own and their families’ photos. At first, fifty years ago, this meant my taking them to a local photographic shop, but eventually scanning at home became the way to go.

If I finish putting in these Old photos, I hope to turn to the colour slides that I took myself in the 1970s and 1980s.

What I have put here on the website are verbatim typescripts of the interviews.

In 1976 I had been collecting information about the history of Witham for nearly ten years. I had this niggling feeling that it was even more important to be talking to residents about their memories, which would all be unique. But it did sound rather complicated. Essex University was a well-known centre for “oral history”, so I phoned there for advice and spoke to the late Alun Howkins (later a Professor). He said he always told people just to go out and get on with it. So that’s what I did – no more excuses. I’ve always been very grateful indeed to Alun for his advice, and I’ll readily pass the message on to anyone else in the same situation.

It was indeed complicated and I made lots of mistakes. However, I think the people that I met managed to rise above my incompetence, and to speak eloquently about a world which has now long gone. Whenever I happen now to re-read what someone told me, I am always impressed by how articulate and moving many of their words were.

Incidentally, over the years I have sometimes encountered people who wanted to conduct interviews, but who were only prepared to talk to people who were already well-known and who had a reputation for being specially interesting. But I have found that the most fascinating people were the ones that no-one had heard of, and who had never spoken much about their lives before. In fact it was sometimes difficult to convince them that it was their own lives that I’d like to hear about, rather than general Witham tales.

The interviews were recorded onto cassette tapes and then transcribed by myself and also others whom I employed to do the work:- Tina Bailey, Jean Bentley, Karen Potter and Ruth Silverlock. An arduous task for which everyone’s assistance was most invaluable and for which I was very grateful.

The tapes are numbered in order of the date on which they were recorded. To find the interviewees by name use a Search box, or the list of tapes produced by clicking Interviews at the top right of any page.

I did not have a questionnaire or a structure. We tried to concentrate on what the person was interested in. But a search for subjects or places or other people would pick out what the people talked about.

The recording equipment was primitive by today’s standards; I never even got round to clip-on mikes, and the tape recorders themselves were small battery-operated ones. What with that, quiet voices, a canary, etc, some of the recordings are not very clear. But since I first wrote this, the sound on most of them has been improved by being digitised, This was done by  the  Essex Sound and Video Archive at the Essex Record Office, and some of those are online. To discover the current arrangements, or to listen to any of the recordings, please contact ero.enquiry@essex.gov.uk or 033301 32500.

While I was recording people’s   reminiscences, from time to time I recorded a lecture or a talk about local history, not always about Witham. I have put these in date order. Some of the recordings are not of very good quality, having been made at a distance in a variety of halls. But some may have been digitised like the interviews mentioned above. Not many have been transcribed,  but the original recordings are held at the Essex Sound and Video Archive. To make enquiries or to listen to a recording, please contact them at ero.enquiry@essex.gov.uk or 033301 32500.

These posts contain assorted information about people and families and companies. A list can be found by clicking People at the top right of the page.
Also see https://historyhouse.co.uk/placeW/essexw30.html, part of the History House series, which has census records, photos, maps etc. and  has suggestions about where to find out more.

Information relating to places of every sort.
A list can be found by clicking Places at the top right of the page.

(8a) Here I must talk about Street numbers. In 1912 it was proposed that Witham’s buildings should be numbered. This was rejected, but the debate continued. It was during the 1920s that numbering was  finally introduced. The Witham Urban District Council provided the numbers and fixed them to  the doors. They seem to have omitted the grander houses, which continued for a time to use their names. The people in favour of numbers were the ones who had to run the postal service or the census. Most of the others just didn’t want to pay higher rates to cover the installation.

Please note that I use these Street numbers to describe a building of any age, even if I am writing about a time hundreds of years before the numbers were even thought of. I’ve just got in the habit of it over the years. Sometimes it gets quite complicated working out which building is which, but there are documents that help, such as the Tithe Map and Award for 1839. The manor records are especially useful. With them you can usually trace a property through from the 1680s to the 1930s, with its owners and occupiers. And in the 1930s its Street number will often be given. This may not work in other manors -Witham had unusual customs regarding freeholders.

A list can be found by clicking Subjects at the top right of the page.
Information relating to subjects, i.e. topics which are not quite people and not quite places, such as bicycles, the First World War, strikes etc.



Phil Gyford must be at the top of this list, for his endless help.                                              

Phil in 1975 with his easel. Small Sue also.

I knew nothing of websites when I started, and only know a little bit more now. So it is entirely because of Phil solving my innumerable problems, over a long period of time, that you can see the website today. He must often have regretted getting involved. But then it was all his idea !

And of course the computer itself always presented its own problems, independently of the website. For solving those problems and calming me down, I owe many thanks to Sue Gyford from Edinburgh, and to Nick Smith from Wickham Bishops (www.pccareessex.co.uk), both with a very patient way of helping.



When I became involved in Witham, in the late 1960s, there were a number of knowledgeable and dedicated people already studying Witham’s history

One of them was the late Maurice Smith, who carried out research in the Essex Record Office for very many  years. No-one had previously done such pioneering and painstaking work on Witham. Starting in 1970, he produced a series of Witham booklets on different subjects; the first one is  illustrated here. He compiled some larger volumes of research, and also wrote articles for  Essex Countryside. Like everyone else in those days, he used a manual typewriter. And at the ERO, he copied everything by pencil, like the rest of us. No taking photos of documents, and not many microfiches to get prints from.

Maurice also took photos of Witham and collected old ones. Many of the latter might never have been known otherwise, but are now familiar. All of his collections are now in Witham Library and the Essex Record Office, and possibly Howbridge School. In the end, Maurice moved to Bournemouth, so was  less well-known to later generations than he might have been.



The Witham Archaeological Research Group
were working at the same time as Maurice, in the 1960s and ’70s. They carried out one of the early investigations of the Romano British site at Ivy Chimneys in Hatfield Road – a lovely way to spend a Sunday afternoon.

The WARG dig near Ivy Chimneys in 1970.
Left to right, Mike Wadhams (standing), Bob Wager, Frank Johnson, Harry Loring, Betty Loring.

I was a member when the group also began to survey old Witham buildings. These were stirring times in the study of timber-framed buildings. Cecil Hewitt of Essex had recently established a new way of dating them, using his own experience of carpentry. It was based especially on the joints connecting the timbers. He showed that many buildings were much older than previously thought (notably the barns at Cressing Temple, whose estimated date was revised from the 16th century back to the 1200s.)

We in WARG were very fortunate that one of our members was Mike Wadhams. He was a friend and colleague of Cecil Hewitt, and so had a good knowledge of these “new” methods. Mike, together with Betty Loring, led the group’s work on Witham buildings in the light of Cecil’s research. The reports  are in the Essex Record Office with reference T/P 198. It was great to share the experience and enjoyment of these friendly people.

But I never really understood building construction myself. So in 1967 I was taken by Harry Loring on my first ever visit to the Essex Record Office, to look at the relevant documents. It was nowhere near as easy as it sounds. I remember that there was some dissent between the Group and Maurice Smith about the history of one building. He dated it from the documents and the Group dated it from the timbers and the joints, and they came to different conclusions. But tricky though it was, it started me off.


At about the same time, I first encountered the inspirational Arthur Brown. One dictionary defines inspiration as “a feeling of enthusiasm you get from someone or something, which gives you new and creative ideas”. That was Arthur. With his tall figure, his friendly smile, and his musical but deep voice, he travelled all over the northern part of Essex with his WEA local history lectures, leaving his students inspired to do more. The WEA is the Workers Education Association. The Essex WEA was fortunate to have Arthur as its forceful and busy chairman for many years. His wife Pat was its secretary for a long time – she appears in some of my illustrations, including the next one.

Below: a postcard from Arthur in 1978. With typical encouragement and some very good news !


Above: the celebration of Arthur’s fiftieth year in the W.E.A., in 1989. Pat and Arthur in the foreground.

Arthur’s part of Essex WEA must have contained two hundred or more parishes. And yet when he visited any one of them, however remote, he would use his own notes about the place’s history. These would often be far superior to the notes compiled by us locals, even though we only had one parish to study. As a teacher and a friend, he shared this hard-won information, and his experience, with great generosity.

Although to many of us it was his local history that inspired us, I mustn’t forget that Arthur was first of all a Classics teacher and never left that behind: I remember a grand talk about Athens called “The Tiler on the Roof”. For the “younger” generation, he’ll be remembered for yet another post which he took up in his retirement. This was his lectureship in Local History at the University of Essex, to which he had received a well-deserved invitation from the History Department.

During all these posts, Arthur wrote books, mostly about the farmworkers and the poorer residents of Essex. They were all based on his own research, and so they were entirely pioneering. Very readable and very helpful in every way, and really, how did he find the time?

I can remember during the 90s that Arthur was becoming sad that he couldn’t quite maintain his former pace, though he still seemed to be doing well. He died in 2003 – can it really have been so long ago. In a way I’ve been glad to have this chance to write about him. But it  has made me realise how very much I still miss him.

One account of his life, elegantly written by Andrew Phillips, is at https://www.theguardian.com/news/2003/jun/04/guardianobituaries.obituaries

And the following book is by his friends and colleagues:
Essex Harvest: a Collection of Essays in Memory of Arthur Brown (Essex Record publication, 2003)


Then there was Albert Poulter. I don’t really know when Albert took up history so seriously. But he was born in Witham in 1907, so he had a head start on the rest of us. For various reasons, including his poor health, his relative youth and possibly  personal differences, he didn’t follow any of the Poulter family’s trades. His father was a “jobmaster” who hired out horses and horse-drawn vehicles, two of his brothers were shoemenders, and market gardening also played a part.

Albert on the left talking to Arthur Bones of Blunts Hall Road, a former cowman. This was during the Mayfest in 1997 in Newland Street – a good place and a good event for a chat.

Sometimes Albert had white-collar jobs; his first was at F H Bright, solicitors, where someone introduced him to the art of stamp collecting. So he was well prepared for writing and producing booklets like his “In the Yards, Up and down the Steps: Characters of Bridge Street and Newland Street, Witham”, published in 1996. It is  full of stories about those characters.

As well as writing, Albert loved talking, as shown in the photo. Much of his knowledge of Witham was passed around the town by word-of-mouth. By the same means, he heard new stories from the people he met on the way.


Witham History Group
The History Group was launched on 3rd July 1989, when a small gathering of people met at the Witham Mill House.  They had been invited by Scotsman Bill McCulloch, with a view to forming a group to study the history of Witham. Albert Poulter was there, and so was I. The plan was, that members would take turns at presenting subjects which they had investigated beforehand and which everyone could discuss. This  format was followed for several years, until the number of members became too great for such an informal approach. Nowadays we usually have outside speakers. But there are also opportunities to chat to others, particularly about our shared interest in the history of Witham. It is fitting that Sheila Bates is now one of the Secretaries; she’s the daughter of Bill McCulloch, the founder. The other Secretary is the hard-working Brian Simpson,
a Witham man who is making his own collection of historical information, and in particular is working on the amazing diary kept by Dr Henry Dixon in the 19th century. You may come across some references to him in this website.

I am including these two photos for old time’s sake. Many of the people in them are no longer with us but I think it is good to remember them, ten years after the group started. They were a friendly and very well-informed crowd, many of them from Witham. The photos were taken by the late Lester Shelley, who came to talk to us in January 1999, and liked to photograph his audience. He was part of an old Witham family who had many talents, including market gardening, shopkeeping, haulage and house clearance. They had a wonderful Aladdin’s cave in some sheds off Mill Lane, behind the Crotchet. There they sold on Saturdays what they had collected during the weeks before.

Lester collected and kept most of the treasures which had Witham inscribed on them, and those were what he was showing us when he came to the History Group and took these photos.

Above, part of the audience at a meeting of the Witham History Group, taken by the late Lester Shelley in 1999 when he showed us his Witham memorabilia.
Front row, left to right, Bill Prime, Sid Gurton (dark glasses), Phyllis Gurton, Daphne Pettican, Don Pettican (white top), Pat Slugocki (white edge round collar).
First row behind front row, left to right, Bill Beal (white and brown top, beard), Janet Gyford (dark top, hands in front), Margaret Ainsley (left of Sid Gurton, peeking round), ???, Pat Harlow (pale blue), Edith Willsher (white top, between the Petticans).
Second row behind front row, Howard Williams (right of Bill Beal), Diane Williams (reddish jacket), Sandra Howell (behind Sid Gurton), Peter Howell (specs, not much hair), Polly Wheaton (red sleeves), Joan Jones (right of Don Pettican), Mary Barnard (in front of door), John Newman (with hand up). 
Back row, George Capon (behind Janet Gyford).


Above, another part of the audience at a meeting of the Witham History Group in 1999, when the late Lester Shelley showed us his Witham memorabilia.
Front row, left to right, Pat Slugocki (pale stripe round top), Wilson Kerr (dark top), Cyril Taylor (pale jacket), Albert Poulter (with tie).
First row back from front row, left to right, Pat Harlow (blue top), Edith Willsher (white top, left of Wilson Kerr), John Newman (hidden behind Cyril Taylor), Win Newman (blue striped top), Valerie Giles (red top), Sheila Wilson (dark top), Clive Freeman.
Second row back from front row, Diane Williams (in dark, left of chair), Sandra Howell hidden by Pat Harlow, Peter Howell (behind Edith Willsher)g, Polly Wheaton (red top), Joan Jones (white collar), Mary Barnard (dark top), Pam Robinson (green top), Barbara Rice (partly hidden by Sheila Wilson).
Back row, right of chair, George Capon.

Very many other people
have contributed
their knowledge and experience to all parts of this
website, for which I am tremendously grateful. In particular, many talked to me about their memories (for which see the Interviews category) and very many allowed me to copy their precious photos (see Photos). I’ve done my best to mention those people as I’ve gone along, and apologise if anyone has been omitted.